Mix rye flour, bread flour, buttermilk, caraway seeds, vital wheat gluten, and kosher salt together in a very large bowl.
Combine water, sugar, and yeast in a bowl until yeast softens and begins to form a creamy foam, about 5 minutes. Stir yeast mixture into flour mixture until well mixed and caraway seeds are evenly distributed. Cover bowl with plastic wrap and let sit for 18 hours.
Transfer dough to a heavily floured work surface. It will be somewhat elongated, so take the right and left sides and fold them into the middle. Turn dough over and gently use a spatula to tuck corners under; cover with plastic wrap for 15 minutes. Remove plastic wrap, dust dough with flour, and make shallow cuts in the top for full bloom.
Place a Dutch oven in the oven and preheat oven to 500 degrees F (260 degrees C).
Carefully place dough in the Dutch oven, cover immediately, reduce oven temperature to 460 degrees F (238 degrees C), and bake until bread is cooked through, 30 to 35 minutes. Carefully transfer bread from the Dutch oven to the oven rack and bake for 5 minutes more.
You can modify this, as you like. I also use the same recipe for white bread. I like to make a white bread and sub in 1/4 cup hand crushed whole oats and a few tablespoons of bran flake. Makes for nice color and texture.
Rye breads use sourdough, which is a pain to deal with and I wanted this to be very easy. I substitute 1/4 cup of water with buttermilk to help the flavor develop while the dough works and ferments.
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